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Irregular heartbeat: symptoms and causes

Cardiovascular Disease

An irregular or abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) is when the heart rhythm is not steady.

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Coronary heart disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Coronary heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease, is a common condition where the major blood vessels to the heart become blocked and narrowed.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiovascular Disease

A cardiac arrest is when the heart suddenly stops beating. It is a medical emergency and can be fatal without immediate treatment.

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Peripheral artery disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease in which the narrowing of arteries results in reduced blood flow to a body part outside of the heart or brain.

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Blood clots: symptoms and causes

Cardiovascular Disease

Blood clotting is a natural process that occurs to prevent excessive bleeding. However, blood clots can also form on the inside of blood vessels.

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Atherosclerotic plaque

Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerotic plaque is composed of fat, cholesterol, calcium and inflammatory cells that build up on the inside of the body’s arteries.

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Atrial fibrillation: irregular heartbeat

Cardiovascular Disease

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats irregularly – it may be rapid or slow.

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Cardiovascular disease: impacts and risks

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to all the diseases of the heart and circulation, including coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart attack, congenital heart disease and stroke.

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Thrombosis: symptoms and causes

Cardiovascular Disease

Thrombosis is when a blood clot (thrombus) forms inside a blood vessel, potentially blocking the flow of blood through the circulatory system and causing serious health issues.

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Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle

Risk Factors

Lifestyles have become more sedentary, and this inactivity can negatively impact health.

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Atherosclerosis: causes and risk factors

Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause of cardiovascular disease.

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Heart attack: causes and warning signs

Cardiovascular Disease

A heart attack occurs when the heart is deprived of oxygen due to a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supplies blood to the heart.

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Acute coronary syndrome

Cardiovascular Disease

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an umbrella term for situations where blood supply to the heart is blocked.

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Congenital heart disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Congenital heart disease is a general term for problems with the heart’s structure that are present from birth. It is the most common type of birth defect.

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Obstructive sleep apnoea: causes and symptoms

Risk Factors

Obstructive sleep apnoea (apnea) is a sleep disorder where breathing repeatedly stops and starts.

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High blood pressure: definition, causes and symptoms

Risk Factors

High blood pressure (hypertension) is cause for concern as it can damage the arteries over the long term and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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Alcohol

Risk Factors

Excessive alcohol intake over the long-term is linked to cardiovascular disease as well as other risk factors like high blood pressure.

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Smoking

Risk Factors

Smoking is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases and reduces health in general.

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Obesity and overweight

Risk Factors

Obesity and being overweight is a condition where a person carries excessive body fat that presents a risk to health.

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High cholesterol

Risk Factors

Cholesterol is a soft, waxy fat produced by the liver that circulates in the bloodstream and is essential for functioning. It is also found in some foods. High cholesterol levels can increase the risk of heart disease.

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Heart failure

Cardiovascular Disease

Heart failure is when the heart does not work as well as it should in pumping blood and oxygen around the body, causing extra fluid to build up in the body.

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Heart disease in the Māori community

Cardiovascular Disease

Māori adults have higher rates of most health conditions – including coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes – and lower access to health care than non-Māori adults.

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Stroke: symptoms, causes and prevention

Cardiovascular Disease

A stroke occurs when the brain does not get the blood supply that it needs.

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Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

Risk Factors

There is no one cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there are several factors that increase your risk – some that can be changed, and some that cannot.

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Women and heart disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Heart disease and heart attacks are often associated with middle aged or older men. However, women are just as affected.

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Preeclampsia: signs, symptoms and treatment

Cardiovascular Disease

Preeclampsia is a serious condition where high blood pressure develops during pregnancy, affecting both the mother and unborn baby.

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Diabetes

Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes is a condition in which the body cannot maintain healthy blood glucose levels. People living with type 2 diabetes are over twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease.

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