Irregular heartbeat: symptoms and causes
An irregular or abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) is when the heart rhythm is not steady.
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease, is a common condition where the major blood vessels to the heart become blocked and narrowed.
A cardiac arrest is when the heart suddenly stops beating. It is a medical emergency and can be fatal without immediate treatment.
Peripheral artery disease
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease in which the narrowing of arteries results in reduced blood flow to a body part outside of the heart or brain.
Blood clots: symptoms and causes
Blood clotting is a natural process that occurs to prevent excessive bleeding. However, blood clots can also form on the inside of blood vessels.
Atherosclerotic plaque is composed of fat, cholesterol, calcium and inflammatory cells that build up on the inside of the body’s arteries.
Atrial fibrillation: irregular heartbeat
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats irregularly – it may be rapid or slow.
Cardiovascular disease: impacts and risks
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to all the diseases of the heart and circulation, including coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart attack, congenital heart disease and stroke.
Thrombosis: symptoms and causes
Thrombosis is when a blood clot (thrombus) forms inside a blood vessel, potentially blocking the flow of blood through the circulatory system and causing serious health issues.
Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle
Lifestyles have become more sedentary, and this inactivity can negatively impact health.
Atherosclerosis: causes and risk factors
Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause of cardiovascular disease.
Heart attack: causes and warning signs
A heart attack occurs when the heart is deprived of oxygen due to a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supplies blood to the heart.
Acute coronary syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an umbrella term for situations where blood supply to the heart is blocked.
Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease is a general term for problems with the heart’s structure that are present from birth. It is the most common type of birth defect.
Obstructive sleep apnoea: causes and symptoms
Obstructive sleep apnoea (apnea) is a sleep disorder where breathing repeatedly stops and starts.
High blood pressure: definition, causes and symptoms
High blood pressure (hypertension) is cause for concern as it can damage the arteries over the long term and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Excessive alcohol intake over the long-term is linked to cardiovascular disease as well as other risk factors like high blood pressure.
Smoking is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases and reduces health in general.
Obesity and overweight
Obesity and being overweight is a condition where a person carries excessive body fat that presents a risk to health.
Cholesterol is a soft, waxy fat produced by the liver that circulates in the bloodstream and is essential for functioning. It is also found in some foods. High cholesterol levels can increase the risk of heart disease.
Heart failure is when the heart does not work as well as it should in pumping blood and oxygen around the body, causing extra fluid to build up in the body.
Heart disease in the Māori community
Māori adults have higher rates of most health conditions – including coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes – and lower access to health care than non-Māori adults.
Stroke: symptoms, causes and prevention
A stroke occurs when the brain does not get the blood supply that it needs.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease
There is no one cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there are several factors that increase your risk – some that can be changed, and some that cannot.
Women and heart disease
Heart disease and heart attacks are often associated with middle aged or older men. However, women are just as affected.
Preeclampsia: signs, symptoms and treatment
Preeclampsia is a serious condition where high blood pressure develops during pregnancy, affecting both the mother and unborn baby.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body cannot maintain healthy blood glucose levels. People living with type 2 diabetes are over twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease.